Welding is a process when we join two metals together but if we do not follow the correct procedures it can defect the weld and instead of fabricating it can create cracks. Welding defects occur when the proper procedure is not followed like using different compositions, using incorrect welding patterns, etc.
The welding defects can ruin the shape, size and intended quality. The defects can either be on the outside or the inside of the workpiece. Let's discuss some of the inner and outward weld defects: Inner weld defects include incomplete penetration into the workpiece, improper fusion, necklace cracks and slag inclusion. Outward weld defects include: weld-crack, undercut, spatter, porosity, overlap and crater.
Cracks are one of the most serious defects because they can become the major reason for welding failure. Carter cracks happen when the incorrect termination of the arc and high welding currents. On the other hand excessive joint restraint, depth to width ratio of runs or incorrect use of consumables can lead to centerline cracks.
To avoid the unwanted welding defect situation we need to focus on points that can give benefits are as follows:
Proper selection of the welding electrode/wire.
Check the welding current as suggested for a particular kind of weld.
Removing the oil and dirt properly from the surface before welding.
Using the proper technique of welding.
Using correct torch angle.
By following these basic rules one can minimize the welding defects which can create a huge impact.