8 Types of Materials Used for Various Metal Welding

Published on 09 June 2022

5 min

Each metal responds to heat in its own way. Depending on the fact how they expand and soften on heating, they can be used for different applications. Even the welding processes such as SMAW, MIG, TIG, and FCAW determine the choice of welding materials. Since the types of materials for welding used can make or mar the entire process, it is necessary to have complete knowledge about them.

There are several types of metals, but 4 of them are most commonly used in welding. If you are wondering what are the 4 types of welding materials, here are all the details.

1. Steel

Have you ever thought about why steel welding electrode price is lower than other metals? It is because steel is a cheaper metal. Moreover, it has a high tensile strength and hence, it is highly resistant to stress. Steel is available in different variants such as stainless steel, carbon steel, and low carbon steel.

2. Cast Iron

It is a type of welding iron. Since cast iron has a high percentage of carbon content, it is also less malleable and ductile. This means that it is vulnerable to cracking. However, an expert welder can work with cast iron efficiently using preheating and heating methods.

3. Aluminium

Aluminum is another type of popular welding rod material. Lighter than steel, it is less corrosive as compared to other metals. Hence, it is considered a durable metal. It also has good electrical conductivity. However, certain grades of aluminum may require filler metals to help materials fuse together.

4. Titanium

Like aluminum, titanium is also light-weight than steel but as strong with high corrosion resistance. It gives durable and long-lasting results. Titanium metal sheet welding requires a strong shielding gas. 

There are four more metals that are used in welding:

5. Copper

Among the types of welding electrodes metals, copper is another strong contender. Its characteristics comprise good electrical conductivity and heat conductivity, wear and tear resistance, and corrosion resistance.

6. Nickel 

Nickel is highly suitable as an arc welding electrode material. It has high corrosion resistance properties and hence, works best in an extreme environment.

7. Magnesium

The properties of magnesium are similar to aluminum. It can absorb vibrations and is easy to weld. If magnesium is used in joining metals, the welders must be extra careful or else welding can go wrong. Welding dissimilar metals is a complex process and magnesium can be joined by laser, resistance spot, or friction stir welding.

8. Tungsten

Tungsten electrodes are used in the arc welding process with the TIG Welding or plasma welding process. In both of the welding processes, the arc, weld, and weld pools are protected from atmospheric contamination by inert gases. Some welding processes like spot welding and ERW process require a flux coated electrode. These processes do not consume the electrodes. The welding electrode dissolves itself and bonds with the welding component and electrode. On the contrary, non-consumable electrodes remain integral and do not dissolve during the welding process.

Types of Welding: Conventional vs Reclamation Welding 

Flux, filler metals and welding rods are known as conventional welding consumables. TIG Welding and MIG Welding are the most common forms of welding where these welding consumables are used. These fluxes and filler metals are melted and joined together to create a strong weld.

Reclamation welding is basically repairing badly worn components and equipment to their original state. Welding rod and FCW wires are mainly used for reclamation welding activities. 

As you can understand, each type of metal has its own properties, merits and demerits. You have to select a metal based on the welding technique and type of product that needs to be welded.

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